Anxiety Disorders : Types, Symptoms and Treatments

Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders are a collection of psychological afflictions characterized by excessive and persistent apprehensions and terrors. These disorders disrupt a person's daily existence and can induce substantial distress. Unlike ordinary apprehensions, which are a natural reaction to stress, anxiety disorders are an abnormal manifestation of mental distress.

Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

The symptoms of anxiety disorders can vary depending on the type of disorder and the individual, but they often include :

1. Physical Symptoms

  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Sweating
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Nausea or stomach pain
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Feeling tense or on edge
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Insomnia or difficulty sleeping

2. Mental Symptoms

  • Excessive worry or fear
  • Difficulty concentrating or focusing
  • Restlessness or feeling on edge
  • Irritability
  • Difficulty controlling feelings of anxiety
  • Disturbances in appetite or eating patterns

3. Behavioral Symptoms

  • Avoiding certain situations or activities that trigger anxiety
  • Struggling to perform everyday tasks or activities
  • Engaging in compulsive behaviors or rituals
  • Engaging in substance abuse
  • Experiencing a loss of interest in activities or hobbies

What Causes Anxiety Disorders?

The exact cause of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but they are likely to be the result of a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. People with anxiety disorders may have an inherited tendency to be more sensitive to stress, or they may have a history of traumatic or stressful experiences that can trigger anxiety. Certain medical conditions, such as thyroid problems or heart disease, can also cause symptoms of anxiety.

Types of Anxiety Disorders

  1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)  is a chronic disorder characterized by excessive worry and anxiety about a wide range of situations and events, even when there is little or no reason to be concerned. People with GAD may worry excessively about their health, work, relationships, or other aspects of their life, and this worry can interfere with their daily activities and relationships. GAD is often accompanied by physical symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, muscle tension, and fatigue.
  2. Panic Disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by the experience of sudden, intense fear or discomfort, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, or chest pain. These panic attacks can happen unexpectedly, even in the absence of any obvious trigger, and can be very frightening. People with panic disorder may also have a fear of having another panic attack, which can interfere with their daily lives and make them avoid certain situations. 
  3. Social Anxiety Disorder, also known as social phobia, is a type of anxiety disorder that involves a fear of being judged or scrutinized by others in social or performance situations. This fear can be so intense that it interferes with a person's ability to participate in everyday activities, such as going to work or school, making small talk, or even making eye contact with others. People with social anxiety disorder may experience symptoms such as racing heart, blushing, sweating, trembling, and difficulty speaking. 
  4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can develop after a person has experienced or witnessed a traumatic event, such as a natural disaster, a car accident, or a violent crime. People with PTSD may experience symptoms such as flashbacks, nightmares, and intense feelings of fear and anxiety. They may also have difficulty sleeping, feel detached from others, or avoid situations that remind them of the traumatic event.
  5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by intrusive and unwanted thoughts, urges, or images that cause anxiety and distress (obsessions), and by repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform in order to reduce the anxiety and distress (compulsions). Some common examples of obsessions and compulsions include excessive hand washing, repeatedly checking things (e.g., locks, stove), and arranging and rearranging objects. 
  6. Specific phobias are a type of anxiety disorder characterized by intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations. These phobias can be very disruptive to a person's life, as they can lead to avoidance of certain places or activities, and can even cause panic attacks. Common specific phobias include fear of animals (such as snakes or spiders), fear of heights, fear of flying, and fear of enclosed spaces. 

Who Can Diagnose Anxiety Disorders?

Anxiety disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or licensed clinical social worker. These professionals are trained to assess and diagnose mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders. To diagnose an anxiety disorder, a mental health professional will typically conduct a thorough evaluation, which may include a physical exam, a review of the person's medical and psychiatric history, and an interview to assess their symptoms and how they are affecting the person's life. The mental health professional may also use questionnaires or other standardized tools to help make a diagnosis. It is important to note that only a qualified mental health professional can diagnose an anxiety disorder, and it is not appropriate to try to diagnose oneself or others.

Can Anxiety Disorders be Prevented?

While it may not be possible to prevent anxiety disorders completely, there are certain things that can be done to reduce the risk of developing one. For example, getting regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, and getting enough sleep can help to maintain good physical and mental health and reduce the risk of developing an anxiety disorder. Avoiding drugs and excessive alcohol consumption can also help, as these substances can worsen anxiety symptoms. In addition, learning healthy coping skills, such as deep breathing and relaxation techniques, can help to manage stress and prevent it from escalating into an anxiety disorder. Finally, seeking help from a mental health professional at the first sign of anxiety symptoms can help to prevent the condition from becoming more severe.

How does Medication Treat Anxiety Disorders?

Medication can be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders. The specific medication or medication regimen will depend on the individual and their particular anxiety disorder, as well as their other medical and psychiatric conditions and any other medications they may be taking. In general, medication for anxiety disorders works by altering the levels of certain chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin and dopamine, which are involved in regulating mood and emotions. By changing the balance of these chemicals, medication can help reduce the symptoms of anxiety, such as excessive worry, racing thoughts, and physical symptoms such as rapid heartbeat and difficulty breathing. It is important to note that medication is not a "cure" for anxiety disorders, but rather a tool to help manage the symptoms and improve the person's quality of life.

Here are 10 ways to naturally reduce anxiety:

  1. Get regular exercise: Exercise can help to reduce anxiety by releasing endorphins, which are chemicals that improve mood and reduce stress.
  2. Eat a healthy diet: Eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help to improve mood and reduce anxiety.
  3. Get enough sleep: Sleep is important for both physical and mental health, and not getting enough sleep can worsen anxiety symptoms.
  4. Avoid drugs and excessive alcohol consumption: These substances can worsen anxiety symptoms and should be avoided or used in moderation.
  5. Engage in relaxation techniques: Techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, and yoga can help to calm the mind and reduce anxiety.
  6. Try herbal remedies: Some herbs, such as chamomile and passionflower, have been shown to have anxiety-reducing effects.
  7. Spend time in nature: Being in nature has been shown to have a calming effect and can help to reduce anxiety.
  8. Connect with others: Spending time with friends and loved ones and engaging in social activities can help to reduce feelings of isolation and anxiety.
  9. Practice mindfulness: Mindfulness involves focusing on the present moment and can help to reduce anxiety by calming the mind and reducing rumination on negative thoughts.
  10. Seek professional help: If anxiety is interfering with your daily life, it may be helpful to seek help from a mental health professional, who can provide treatment and support.